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Alpha: The History in Facts and Comments
Alpha Powered Dig my grave both long and narrow
Make my coffin neat and strong 

(from an old American song)

Paul V. Bolotoff
Release date: 14th of April 2005
Last modify date: 22nd of April 2007

in Russian


1. G. Michael Uhler et al. The NVAX and NVAX+ High-performance VAX Microprocessors, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1992.
2. Richard L. Sites. Alpha AXP Architecture, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, Special Issue, 1992.
3. Daniel W. Dobberpuhl et al. A 200-MHz 64-bit Dual-issue CMOS Microprocessor, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, Special Issue, 1992.
4. Todd A. Dutton et al. The Design of the DEC 3000 AXP Systems, Two High-performance Workstations, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, Special Issue, 1992.
5. Brian R. Allison, Catharine van Ingen. Technical Description of the DEC 7000 and DEC 10000 Family, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, Special Issue, 1992.
6. Edward McLellan. The Alpha AXP Architecture and 21064 Processor, IEEE Micro, 1993.
7. David G. Conroy, Thomas R. Kopec, Joseph R. Falcone. The Evolution of the Alpha AXP PC, Digital Technical Journal, 1994.
8. Dina L. McKinney et al. Digital's DECchip 21066: The First Cost-focused Alpha AXP Chip, Digital Technical Journal, 1994.
9. Robert Couranz. The E2COTS System and Alpha AXP Technology: The New Computer Standard for Military Use, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994.
10. Samyojita A. Nadkarni et al. Development of Digital's PCI Chip Sets and Evaluation Kit for the DECchip 21064 Microprocessor, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994.
11. Linley Gwennap. Digital Leads the Pack with 21164, Microprocessor Report, Vol. 8, No. 12, 1994.
12. William J. Bowhill et al. Circuit Implementation of a 300-MHz 64-bit Second-generation CMOS Alpha CPU, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995.
14. David P. Hunter, Eric B. Betts. Measured Effects of Adding Byte and Word Instructions to the Alpha Architecture, Digital Technical Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996.
15. Linley Gwennap. Digital, MIPS Add Multimedia Extensions, Microprocessor Report, Vol. 10, No. 15, 1996.
16. Daniel Leibholz, Rahul Razdan. The Alpha 21264: A 500 MHz Out-of-Order Execution Microprocessor, Proceedings of of IEEE COMPCON'97, 1997.
17. Michael K. Gowan, Larry L. Biro, Daniel B. Jackson. Power Considerations in the Design of the Alpha 21264 Microprocessor, DAC 98, June 15-19, 1998.
18. Linley Gwennap. Compaq, Intel Fight Digital Brain Drain, Microprocesor Report, Vol. 12, No. 14, October 26, 1998.
19. Linley Gwennap. Alpha 21364 to Ease Memory Bottleneck, Microprocessor Report, Vol. 12, No. 14, October 26, 1998.
20. M. Matson et al. Circuit Implementation of a 600 MHz Superscalar RISC Microprocessor, Compaq Technology Journal, 1998.
21. Chart Watch: Workstation Processors, Microprocessor Report, May 10, 1999.
22. Daniel W. Bailey. High-Performance Alpha Microprocessor Design, Compaq Computer Corporation, 1999.
23. Exploring Alpha Power for Technical Computing, Compaq Technology Brief, April 2000.
24. Zarka Cvetanovic. Performance Analysis of the Alpha 21364-based HP GS1280 Multiprocessor, Hewlett-Packard Corporation, 2002.
25. Kevin Krewell. Alpha EV7 Processor: A High-Performance Tradition Continues, Microprocessor Report, April 5, 2002.
26. Ronald P. Preston. Design of an 8-wide Superscalar RISC Microprocessor with Simultaneous Multithreading, Compaq Computer Corporation, ISSCC Report, 2002.
27. Next Generation HP Alpha Systems, HP white paper, January, 2003.
28. Peter N. Glaskowsky. Moore, Moore, and More at ISSCC, Microprocessor Report, March 23, 2003.
Many technical documents by DEC and Compaq have been also used. This article wouldn't be complete without them.


The author pays a credit to Wikipedia for information on DEC's early history as well as products of those old days, also to Terry Shannon for his regular and informative newsletter "Shannon Knows {DEC, Compaq, HPC}"
This paper contains information collected from many unofficial resources found on the Net. A big and sincere appreciation goes to all their authors for especially interesting facts, comments, points of view asf.
The photographs of DEC Alpha 21064 (EV4) and Samsung Alpha 21264 (EV6) are a courtesy of
A special personal credit for useful notes and suggestions made while preparing this article goes to ISA_user, VLev, Yury_Malich, Stranger_NN and matik (all are from
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