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Module 2


This module provides basic information about getting started using UNIX. It then leads you on a "hands-on" tour of the most commonly used UNIX commands. Because this module is intended to get you familiar with UNIX, it does not provide in-depth explanations. If you wish to know more about a command while you are using it, refer to the module for the given command. The third module provides additional information about features of the UNIX operating system.

The following is a brief outline of information contained in this module. The information discussed in the first four sections is usually set by the system administrator when your login account is created.

*  Terminal setup
*  Communications between UNIX and your terminal
*  Logging in to the UNIX System
*  Correcting typing mistakes
*  Setting/changing your password
*  Knowing which version of UNIX you are using
*  Knowing which shell you are using
*  UNIX environment
*  Executing commands
*  Common commands
*  Text editing with vi/ex
*  Communicating with others
*  Logging out of the UNIX System


Before you can begin using the UNIX operating system you must have a login account. You should request the login account from the system administrator. If you do not have a system administrator, you must create a login account yourself. Check your System Administrator';s Guide or Reference Manual for instructions on how to do this.

You will also need a terminal connected to your system. There are several ways for terminals to communicate with the UNIX System: via direct wire, modem, or terminal servers. Your system administrator should connect your terminal to the system.


Once you have a "login:" prompt on your terminal and a login account, you can log in to the UNIX System. Throughout this book we assume /u1/ts/mylogin is your login (HOME) directory. After you log in and know your HOME directory substitute it in place of /u1/ts/mylogin. We also use the "mylogin" login name; you should replace it with your login name.

1.  At the login: prompt type mylogin and press Return.
   cj login: mylogin

TIP:  Make sure your CAPS key is not activated. If you have a LOGIN: prompt in all capital letters, press Ctrl-D and wait for a new login: prompt to appear, then try to log in to the system.

Your login name must contain one lowercase character. If you do not type at least one lowercase character, UNIX assumes your terminal cannot generate lowercase ASCII characters and treats all characters as uppercase for the remainder of your login session.

2.  Type iamuser2 and press Return at the passwd: prompt to log in to the system. Be patient! Depending on your system and its load factor, it could take from a few seconds to a few minutes for the system to respond.
   cj login: mylogin

Your password will not be printed, or "echoed," as you type it. The UNIX System disables the output so nosy people are not able to read your password.

3.  If your login was successful, you should see information displayed on your screen. If your login attempt was unsuccessful, your display will resemble the following,
   cj login: mylogin
   Login incorrect.

If, after a couple of attempts, you cannot get logged in, check your login name and password with the ones your system administrator gave you. If you are still unable to gain access into the system, contact your system administrator, he/she likes to hear from frustrated users!

Messages from the system

The following list is a possible sequence of what may appear on your screen once you type the correct password. You may be required to type information to complete the login sequence. This depends on your local system.

*  General information about the local UNIX System is displayed on your terminal from the message of the day file (/etc/motd).
*  System displays or lists unread news items.
*  System displays or informs you of mail you have received.
*  You may be requested to set your terminal type.
*  System displays various other information the system administrator has set up.
*  A prompt from the UNIX shell (command interpreter) appears. The default prompt is a dollar sign ($).

C Shell
* The default prompt for the csh is a percent sign (%).

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