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Using Redirection

The ">" symbol redirects standard output to a file.

1.  Create a file by typing cat > myfile and pressing Return. Then type in the following text and press Ctrl-D. The ">" symbol informs your shell to redirect output of the cat command to a file, "myfile." The cat command reads from the standard input in this example.
   cj> cat > myfile

   Name:Address1:Address2:City:State:Zip

   Someone:916 Hawk Street::Austin:Texas:78749

   Anyone:Eagle Avenue:Suite 100:Dallas:Texas:75218

   ^D
     
2.  Now type cat myfile and press Return to display the contents of the file.
3.  Create a directory by typing mkdir temp and pressing Return. Then type ls and press Return. Notice that temp is now listed in your directory.
   cj> mkdir temp

   cj> ls

   myfile

   temp
     
4.  Type ls -l and press Return to produce a long listing of your directory. Notice the temp line starts with a "d" and the myfile line starts with a "-". The "d" signifies a directory. The "-" siginifies a normal file.
5.  Now set up a directory structure in your HOME directory for later use. Type mkdir letters bin tmp and press Return. This creates the "letters," "bin," and "tmp" subdirectories in your HOME directory.

Using an editor

There are three popular editors on UNIX that can be used to create files. They are ed, ex, and vi; please refer to the module that describes each of these editors (Module 39, Module 43, and Module 151).

COPYING AND COMBINING FILES

UNIX provides multiple commands to copy files. The following commands are the most commonly used.

1.  Copy myfile to phone.db by typing cp myfile phone.db and pressing Return. The cp command does not display information if it was successful.
2.  Combine two files using the cat command by typing cat myfile phone.db > myph and pressing Return. A new file called "myph" is created.
3.  Display the contents of the myph file by typing cat myph and pressing Return.

RENAMING AND MOVING FILES AND DIRECTORIES

The following command renames files or moves them to another directory.

1.  Rename the phone.db file to phone by typing mv phone.db phone and pressing Return. Again no response if mv was successful.
2.  Type mv temp db and press Return to rename the temp directory to "db."
3.  Type mv phone db and press Return to move the phone file to the db directory.

CHANGING DIRECTORIES

To move around from directory to directory you use the cd command.

1.  Type cd and press Return to make sure you are in your HOME directory.
2.  Type pwd and press Return to display your present working directory.
   cj> pwd

   /u1/ts/mylogin
     
3.  Type cd db and press Return to change to the db directory.
4.  Type pwd and press Return. Notice you are now in the db directory.
   cj> pwd

   /u1/ts/mylogin/db
     
5.  Type cd ../bin and press Return to change to the "bin" directory that you created earlier.
6.  Again type pwd and press Return to display your present working directory.
   cj> pwd

   /u1/ts/mylogin/bin
     
7.  Type cd and press Return to change back to your HOME directory.

DELETING FILES AND DIRECTORIES

The following commands remove files or directories.

1.  Remove the files myfile and myph by typing rm myfile myph and pressing Return. The rm command does not respond if it was successful.
2.  Type ls -x and press Return to see that myfile was removed.
   cj> ls -x

   bin        db     letters  tmp
     
3.  Type rmdir tmp and press Return to remove the tmp directory.
4.  Type ls -x and press Return to display the contents of your directory.
   cj> ls -x

   bin        db     letters
     

OTHER USEFUL COMMANDS

There are many other commands that make life easy on the UNIX System; the more popular ones are included in the following examples.

1.  Type cd db and press Return to change directories to db.
2.  Type wc phone and press Return to display how many characters, words, and lines are in the file.
   cj> wc phone

      3     7    131 phone
     

There are 3 lines, 7 words, and 131 characters in the file.

3.  Select the line containing "Austin" from the file by typing grep Austin phone and pressing Return. Notice the line containing "Austin" is displayed on your terminal.
4.  Sort the "phone" file by typing sort phone and pressing Return. Notice that the order of the lines are rearranged and displayed on your terminal in alphabetical order.

System V and BSD with System V extensions

5.  Cut out the first field of the "phone" file by typing cut -f1 -d: phone and pressing Return. Your screen should look like the following display:
   cj> cut -f1 -d: phone

   Name

   Someone

   Anyone
     
6.  Type cd and press Return to return to your HOME directory.


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