Table of Contents


Index

! escape to shell, ed, 156
! escape to shell, ex, 180
! escape to shell, pg, 419
! ignore unsaved modification, ex, 172
! logical NOT, find, 237
! logical NOT, let/@, 298
! logical NOT, nawk, 46
! negation, let/@, 298
! negation, nawk, 40
! negation, test, 543
! variable, last background process, 399
!! repeat last escape to shell, ex, 172
!= not equal to, arithmetic, 40
!= not equal to, arithmetic, let/@, 298
!= not equal to, string, 40
!~ no existence of string, @, 299
!~ nonmatch string operator, 39
" reference register, vi, 606
"..." constants, 41
"..." quoting, 288
# alternate buffer, vi, 598
# alternate filename, ex, 172
# nawk comment, 41
# sed script comment, 482
# shell comment, 286
# shortest left substring, ksh, 405
# variable, number of parameters, 399
## longest left substring, ksh, 405
$ default primary ksh prompt, 401
$ last line, ed, 156
$ last line, ex, 171
$ last line, sed, 477
$ last mail message, 345
$ RE, end of line, 461
$ variable, process ID of script, 399
$! process ID of last background job, 614
$() command substitution, 286, 287
$? return code variable, 100
% buffer addresses 1,$, ex, 171
% current buffer, vi, 598
% current filename, ed, 156
% current filename, ex, 172
% last replacement RE, 155
% match {}, (), ex, 189
% match {}, (), vi, 603
% modulus, expr, 204
% modulus, let/@, 298
% remainder, expr, 204
% shortest right substring, ksh, 405
%% current job, 59, 221
%% longest right substring, ksh, 405
%+ current job, 59, 221
%- previous job, 59, 221
%= modulus assignment, 45
%? match job name, 59, 221
%job job name, 59, 221, 270
& background operator, 285
& bitwise AND, let/@, 299
& last RE, 155, 466
& non-NULL or nonzero, expr, 205
& repeat last editor command, 156
& repeat last ex command, vi, 609
&& logical AND operator, ksh, 285, 435
&& logical AND, let/@, 299
&& logical AND, nawk, 40, 46
'' previous current line, ex, 171
'' previous current line, vi, 602
'...' absolute quoting, 288
'x jump to mark, ex, 171
'x jump to mark, vi, 602
(()) arithmetic evaluation, ksh, 297
() group operators, 40, 298, 544
() RE, group REs, 465
() subshell operators, 285
(), show matching, ex, 189
* all mail messages, 345
* multipy, expr, 204
* multipy, let/@, 298
* RE, zero or more, 461
* variable, all ksh parameters, 399
*= multiplication assignment, 45
+ addition, expr, 204
+ addition, let/@, 298
+ next line, ex, 171
+ RE, match one or more, 461, 465
++ increment operator, 46
+= addition assignment, 45
, buffer addresses 1,., ed, 156
, buffer addresses 1,., ex, 171
, repeat last F/T search, vi, 601
- previous line, ex, 171
- subtraction, expr, 205
- subtraction, let/@, 298
- unary minus, let/@, 298
- variable, current options, 399
-- decrement operator, 46
-= subtraction assignment, 45
. current directory, 11, 369
. current line, ed, 156
. current line, ex, 171
. current mail message, 345
. RE, single character, 461
. repeat last command, vi, 609
. source script, ksh, 290
.. parent directory, 11, 369
.= current line number, ex, 174, 185
.cshrc file, 260, 292, 352, 518, 626
.exrc file, 190
.exrc, ex init file, 187
.kshrc file, 260, 352, 401, 403
.login file, 260, 292, 295, 352, 571
.mailrc file, 353
.plan file, 239
.profile file, 260, 283, 295, 352, 358, 403, 507, 518, 571
.project file, 239
/ (root directory), 24
/ divide, expr, 204
/ division, let/@, 298
// RE, null or empty, repeat, 465, 601
// repeat search, ex, 171
// repeat search, vi, 601
/= division assignment, 45
/RE/ match RE operator, 39
/RE/ search for RE, ed, 153
/RE/ search for RE, ex, 171
/RE/ search for RE, vi, 601
: buffer addresses 1,$, ed, 156
: ex prompt, 188
: matching operator, expr, 203
: null command, ksh, 290
: temporary ex mode, vi, 603, 171
: true statement, 566
; command separator, ex, 172, 186
; empty statment, 52
; repeat last f/t search, vi, 601
; sequential execution operator, 284
< buffer addresses 1,., ed, 156
< deindent operator, vi, 592, 604, 605
< input redirection, 266
< less than, arithmetic, let/@, 298
< less than, arithmetic, nawk, 39
< less than, expr, 205
< less than, string, nawk, 39
< read input variable, csh, 400, 487
<&fd read from file descriptor, 266
<&p read from pipe, 267
<< bit shift left, let/@, 298
<<- here document, ksh, 266
<= less than or equal to, arithmetic, let/@, 298
<= less than or equal to, arithmetic, nawk, 40
<= less than or equal to, expr, 205
<= less than or equal to, string, nawk, 40
= assignment, let/@, 299
= current line number, ed, 156
= equal to, expr, 205
= pathname listing, fc, 215
= total lines, ex, 186
== equal to, arithmetic, let/@, 298
== equal to, arithmetic, nawk, 40
== equal to, string, nawk, 40
=~ existence of string, @, 299
> buffer addresses 1,$, ed, 156
> default secondary ksh prompt, 401
> greater than, arithmetic, let/@, 298
> greater than, arithmetic, nawk, 39
> greater than, expr, 205
> greater than, string, nawk, 39
> indent operator, vi, 592, 604, 605
> output redirection, 14, 49, 266
>! force overwriting of file, csh, 266
>& write standard error, csh, 267
>&fd write to file descriptor, 266
>= greater than or equal to, arithmetic, let/@, 298
>= greater than or equal to, arithmetic, nawk, 40
>= greater than or equal to, expr, 205
>= greater than or equal to, string, nawk, 40
>> append output redirection, 49, 266
>> bit shift right, let/@, 298
>| force overwriting of file, ksh, 266
? RE, match zero or more, 461, 465
? variable, existence test, csh, 399, 405
? variable, last exit status, ksh, 399
?: conditional expression, 46
?? repeat search, ex, 171
?? repeat search, vi, 601
?RE? search backward for RE, ex, 171
?RE? search backward for RE, vi, 601
@@ alias expansion, fc, 215
@@ arithmetic evaluation, csh, 297
@@ at the baud rate of, test, 570
@@ invoke vi macro, 608
@@ variable, all ksh parameters, 399
@@@ repeat vi macro, 608
[ test command, 541
[...] RE, character class, 461, 462
[^...] RE, not in character class, 463
\ escape special character meaning, 288, 461, 462, 467
\ filename completion, fc, 215
\ pathname completion, fc, 215
\(...\) RE, group REs, 464
\0dd ASCII character in octal , 467
\b backspace, 467
\c literl character c, 467
\E turn off \U or \L, ex, 184, 466
\e turn off \U or \L, ex, 184, 466
\f form feed, 467
\l convert to lowercase, ex, 184, 466
\L convert word to lowercase, ex, 184, 466
\n carriage return, 467
\r new-line, 467
\t tab, 467
\u convert to uppercase, ex, 184, 466
\U convert word to uppercase, ex, 184, 466
\{\} RE, occurrences of pattern, 464
^ bitwise XOR, let/@, 299
^ first mail message, 345
^ RE, beginning of line, 461
_ variable, last positional parameter, 399
`...` command substitution, 286
`x jump to mark, ex, 171
`x jump to mark, vi, 601
`` previous current line, ex, 171
`` previous current line, vi, 602
{} group statement, nawk, 51
{} group statement, sed, 482
{} grouping keywords, ksh, 285
{} show matching, ex, 189
| bitwise OR, let/@, 299
| command separator, ex, 172, 186
| non-NULL or non-zero, expr, 205
| pipe creating operator, ksh/csh, 284
| print output to command, nawk, 50
| RE, either or, 461, 465
|& write standard error on pipe, csh, 267
|| logical OR operator, ksh, 285, 435
|| logical OR, let/@, 299
|| logical OR, nawk, 40, 46
~ bitwise negation, let/@, 298
~ directory substitution, 72, 286
~ invert character case, vi, 605, 609
~ last replacement string, ex, 184, 466
~ match string operator, 39
~+ absolute path, PATH, 286, 491

A

abbreviations, vi, 608
absolute addressing, pg, 417
absolute file permission modes, 80
absolute path, 71
access control, tty, 368
access permission, crontab, 113
access to history file, 211, 261, 289
access to vi, 170
access, system, 310
accessing registers, vi, 598, 606
account defaults, 5
account setup, 5
account, login to new, 518
accounting records, 547
accounting variable, 401
action, 36
add directory to stack, 454
address process is waiting on, 449
addresse units, vi, 592, 597
addressing, ed, 150
addressing, ex, 171
addressing, sed, 477
adjusting screen, vi, 602
aging, password, 409
alias, 29
alias expansion, fc, 215
alias group, mail, 340, 346
alias, filenames, 307
alias, preset, 31
alias, tracked, 31 256, 485
aliases, display value of, 622
all mail messages, 345
all values of array, ksh, 404
allow messages to tty, 367
alter CPU priority, 385
alternate buffer, vi, 598
alternate flow control, 435
anchoring regular expressions, 463
AND operator, binary, test, 543
append command, ed, 152
append command, ex, 175
append command, sed, 479
append command, vi, 604
append mode, ed, 152
append mode, ex, 175
append mode, vi, 604
append next line, sed, 480
append to hold space, sed, 480
append to registers, vi, 598
appending lines, diff, 136
apropos command, 33
archive files, 105
arctangent function, atan2, 47
ARGC variable, 41
argument list, ex, 186
arguments, keyword, 485
arguments, parse, 247
arguments, process, 247
arguments, resetting shell, 485
arguments, setting shell, 485
argv variable, 400
ARGV variable, 41
arithmetic assignment operators, 45, 299
arithmetic base variable, 576
arithmetic calculations, 297
arithmetic expressions, 297
arithmetic operators, 204, 297
arithmetic variables, 297
arithmetic, integer, 300
array element, delete function, 47
array elements, ksh, 403
array elements, nawk, 43
array subscripts, ksh, 403-405
array subscripts, nawk, 44
array, ksh, 403
array, nawk, 43
arrays, deleting elements, 45
arrays, looping through, 44
arrays, splitting strings into, 45
ascending sort, 500
ASCII, 13, 67
ASCII codes, 599
ASCII collating sequence, 665
ASCII to EBCDIC, 127
assign attributes to variables, 575
assign input to variables, 458
assign values to variables, 575
assignment operators, arithmetic, 45, 299
assumptions, 5
atan2, arctangent function, 47
attached process, 270
attributes, file, 79, 236
attributes, terminal, 555, 569
attributes, variable, 400, 575
autoindent option, ex, 187
autoindent, backtab over, vi, 604
autoload command, 401
automatic displaying, 529
automatic editor write(save), 187
automatically export variables, 485
automatically set variables, 399
autoprint option, ex, 187
autowrite option, ex, 187
awk command, 35
awk, see nawk

B

background command, bg, 59
background editor, ex, 180
background job, wait to finish, 614
background operator, 285
background process, 22, 23, 270, 507
backslash quoting, 288
backspace character, 8
backup file, create, 104
banner command, 55
base number system, 300
basename command, 57
baud rate, 510
beautify option, ex, 187
BEGIN pattern in nawk, 37
beginner mode, ex, 188
bg command, 59
bidirectional conversation, 633
blank interpretation, 287
block count, 521
block input operations, 550
block size, input, 127
block size, output, 127
block special file, 26, 333
boolean operators, nawk, 40
boot, last system, 629
bottom of file, display, 529
Bourne shell, see ksh
BPI rating, 536
branch command, sed, 479
break long lines, 245
break loop statement, 51
break out of loop, 439
break signal, 511
break statement, 439
British spelling, 502
broadcast message, 617
BSD, 2
buffer position, marking ed, 153
buffer position, marking ex, 176
buffer position, marking vi, 602
buffer units, vi, 592, 597
buffer, alternate, vi, 598
buffer, current, vi, 598
buffer, movement, vi, 602
buffer, moving around, vi, 592
buffers vi, 598
build directory, 370
build shell scripts, 432
building block, 21
built-in variables, 41
byte compare files, cmp, 88
byte dump, 392
byte size, 510
byte swapping, cbyte swapping, dd, 127

C

C programming language, 23
cal command, 61
calculate checksum, 521
calculations, arithmetic, 297
calendar command, cal , 61
calendar command, calendar , 63
calling other users, 531
cancel print request, 65
canned tab stops, 526
capnames, terminal, 555
case statement, 435
cat command, 67
cat packed file, 414
catch signals, 562
cd command, 71
cdpath variable, 402
CDPATH variable, 72, 400
change accounts, 518
change command, ed, 152
change command, ex, 175
change command, sed, 479
change directories, 422, 454
change directory owner, 85
change directory permissions, 79
change directory, cd, 71
change environment, 164, 484, 490, 519
change file owner, 85
change file permissions, 79
change files group ID, chgrp, 76
change group ID, 519
change groups, 380
change operator, vi, 592, 604
change passwd file information field, chfn, 74, 408
change password , 12, 408
change shell options, 486
change text, vi, 605
change user ID, 519
change viewing environment, 418
changing lines, diff, 137
changing password, 12, 408
changing text, ex, 175
character count, 618
character movement, vi, 599
character pitch, 315
character search, vi, 601
character special files, 26, 333
character units, vi, 592, 597
character variables, 41
characters unused, vi, 598
characters, complement, 599
characters, converting to/from lowercase, 126
characters, converting to/from uppercase, 127
characters, create large, 55
characters, delete, 599
characters, formatting, 145
characters, lowercase, 7
characters, map input, 511
characters, map input, vi, 607
characters, nonprintable , 68, 153
characters, replace, 560
characters, translate, 599
characters, uppercase, 7
chdir command, 71
check for mail variable, 401
check for syntax errors, 485
check mail variable, 402
checking, spell, 501
checksum, calculate, 521
chfn command, 74
chmod command, 79
chown command, 85
class, printer, 326
clear command, 87
clear screen, 87, 556
clobber option, ksh, 485
close file descriptor, 195
close standard input, 267
close standard output, 267
closing files, nawk, 51
closing pipes, nawk, 51
cmp command, 88
codes, ASCII, 599
col command, 90
colon command, 290, 566
columns, 35, 121
COLUMNS variable, 214, 331, 372, 400
columns, tty, 514
combine files horizontally, 412
combining files, 15
comm command, 93
command, 12
command being executed, 448
command execution, 99
command format, ex, 174
command format, ksh, 96
command history file, 260
command interpreter, 12
command line arguments, ARGV, 41
command line variable assignment, 42
command line, nawk, 42
command mode, ed, 149
command mode, mail, 345
command mode, vi, 596, 599
command processor, 280
command separator, ex, 172, 186
command separator, shell, 96
command substitution, 286
command syntax (rules), 96
command, alias, 29
command, display path to, 622, 624, 626
command, searching for, 99
command, time to execute, 546, 549
commands, 96
commands, built-in, 100
commands, common, 13
commands, display previous, 262
commands, external, 100, 289
commands, internal, 100, 289
commands, keyword, 98
commands, mail, 346
commands, motion, vi, 592
commands, pipeline, 98
commands, simple, 98
comments, ksh, 286
comments, nawk, 41
comments, sed, 482
common concepts variables, 10
communicate with another user, 531
communicate with users, 18
compare ASCII files, comm, 93
compare ASCII files, diff, 134
compare directory contents, 139
compare expressions, 204
compare files, cmp, 88
compare files, diff, 134
comparison operators, expr, 205
comparison operators, nawk, 39
complement characters, 599
completion, filename, 215
completion, pathname, 215
compound patterns, 40
compress data, 395
compressed print, 315
concatenate files, 67
concatenation regular expressions, 467
conditional commands, 433
conditional expressions, 46, 541
conditional operators, 205
conditional operators, tset, 570
cons of vi, pros and, 593
constants, nawk, 41
context splitting, 118
continue statement, 51, 440
control characters, discard, 187
control characters, display, 595
control characters, insert, vi, 604, 607
control characters, tty, 513, 570
control code sequences, 513, 570
control CPU usage, 385
control modes, tty, 510, 570
control resources, 576
control shell actions, 484
control system access, 310
control terminal attributes, 558, 570
control tty access, 368
control, job, 221, 270, 508
control-flow statements, 434, 435
control-flow statments, nawk, 51
conversation, bidirectional, 531, 633
convert data (EBCDIC/ASCII), 126
convert number to string, 53
convert spaces to tab, 90
convert string to number, 53
convert to lowercase, 511
convert to uppercase, 511
convert type variables, 42
convert variable to lowercase, 576
convert variable to uppercase, 576
convert, carriage return, 510
convert, input characters, 511
copy command, ed, 155
copy command, ex, 175
copy directory structures, 109
copy file descriptor, 195
copy files and directories, 105
copy mail message, 347
copy of terminal session, 474
copying files, 15, 68, 103, 109
copying text, ex, 175
core file, maximum size, 576
correct previous command, 214
correct spelling, 501
correction keys, default, 8
cos, cosine function, 47
cosine function, cos, 47
count characters, 618
count lines, 618
count words, 618
cp command, 103
cpi, characters per inch, 315
cpio command, 105
CPU priority, alter, 385
CPU seconds consumed, 550
CPU time allowed, maximum, 576
CPU utilization, 449
create alias, 256
create archive, 105, 109, 534
create backup file, 104
create calendar, 61
create directories, cpio, 107
create file, 10, 14, 157, 592
create large characters, 55
create multiple files, 505, 592
create password, 408
create shell scripts, 432, 433
create spelling list, 501
create zero byte file, 552
creating directories, 14
creating files, 14, 69
crontab access allowed, 113
crontab access denied, 113
crontab command, 111
crontab file format, 111
crypt command, 115
csh, 2
csh shell, 280
csplit command, 118
Ctrl-Q, stop output, 511
Ctrl-S, start output, 511
Ctrl-Z, suspend character, 186, 523
cumulative system time, 549
cumulative time of process, 449
cumulative user time, 549
current buffer, vi, 598
current directory, 11, 369, 456
current field, NF, nawk, 41
current filename, FILENAME, nawk, 41
current hostname, 263
current mail message, 345
current record, FNR, nawk, 41
current record, NR, nawk, 41
cursor movement, 557
customizing options, ex, 186
cut command, 121
cut operator, vi, 592, 604, 606
cutting text, ex, 176
cutting text, vi, 606
cwd variable, 400

D

data conversion, 126
data encryption, 115, 148, 168, 589
data security, 115
data segment, maximum size, 576
data space, unshared, 550
data structure, array, 44, 403
data type, 223
data, in columns, 35, 121
data, in rows, 35
data, lines, 35
data, sort, 497
data, typeless, 35
date command, 123
date format, 124
date, display, 123
date, set, 123
dd command, 12
DEAD variable, 354
debug shell scripts, 485, 486
dec mode, tty, 515
decipher, 116
decrease CPU priority, 385
decrement operators, 46
decrypt data, 115, 149, 589
default variable assignment, 403
define variable as function, 576
define variables, 484, 490
defining terminal type, 593
definitions, 635
definitions, input mode motion, vi, 608
definitions, vi, 596
deindent command, ex, 177
deindent operator, vi, 592, 604, 605
deindenting text, ex, 177
deindenting text, vi, 605
delay execution, 495
delete characters, 599, 604, 605
delete command, ed, 152
delete command, ex, 176
delete command, sed, 479
delete command, vi, 605
delete directories, 469, 472
delete duplicate lines, 586
delete files, 569
delete key, 13
delete links, 469
delete operator, vi, 592, 604
delete print jobs, 323
delete, array element function, 47
deleted lines, vi, 595, 605
deleting array elements, 45
deleting files, 15
deleting lines, diff, 136
deleting text, ex, 176
deleting text, vi, 605
delimeter, see separator
delimeters, paragraph, ex, 188
delimeters, sections, ex, 189
delimit options, 247
deny messages to tty, 367
descend directory structure, 234
descending sort, 500
design of vi, 592
destination printer, 314
destroy a file, 67
detached process, 270
determining terminal type, 593
/dev/null, garbage can, 291
/dev/tty terminal device, 573
device driver, set options, 509
device drivers, 26
device independence, UNIX, 24
devices, tape, 536
df command, 130
diagnostic message, ex, 189
dial-up password, 309
dictionary order sort, 498
differences between directories, 139
differences between files, 88, 93, 134
direct terminal I/O, 573
directories, compare, 139
directories, creating, 14
directories, display, 329
directories, limitations, 24
directories, link together, 305
directories, remove, 469, 472
directories, renaming, 15, 377
directories, search for, 234
directory, 24, 333, 369
directory contents, list, 329
directory modes, mask, 582
directory modes, set, 582
directory option, ex, 187
directory owner, chown, 85
directory path, CDPATH, 72
directory permissions, 333
directory permissions, test, 541
directory stack, 142, 421, 454
directory substitution, 286
directory, current, 11, 369
directory, differences, 139
directory, home, 11
directory, make new, 369
directory, max files, 370
directory, new, 369
directory, parent, 11, 369
directory, present, 11, 71, 456
dirname command, 141
dirs command, 142
disable filename generation, 485
disable filename wildcards, 485
disable job monitor, 484
disable option, 486
disable parity checking, 511
disable printer, 327
discard control characters, 187
disconnect login, 309
disk free space, 130
disk space used, 143
disk space, reduce required, 396
display bottom of file, 529
display command, ed, 145
display command, ex, 174
display date, 123
display directories, 329
display duplicate lines, 586
display end of file, 529
display environment, 431
display file automatically, 529
display file contents, 13, 67
display file size, 619
display filenames, 329
display full name, 239
display idle time, 239, 628
display last lines, 529
display line numbers, 68, 387, 425
display logged in users, 588, 628
display login name, 239
display login shell, 239
display login time, 239
display multiple files, 68
display office location, 239
display operating system information, 584
display packed file, 414
display path to command, 622, 624, 626
display pathname only, 141
display phone number, 239
display previous commands, 262
display print queue, 325
display printer forms, 326
display shell environment, 431, 484, 490
display status, vi, 603
display tabs, 188
display terminal device, 573
display terminal name, 239
display time, 123
display top of file, 258, 387
display uniq lines, 586
display variables, 145, 429, 484, 490
display, the vi, 595
displaying control charaters, vi, 595
divert input to file, 539
divide files, 118, 506
do loop statement, 51
documentation, 28
dot command, 290
dot directory, 369
dot dot directory, 369
double digit parameters, 404
double qoutes, 288
dream, 21
dumb terminals, ex, 188
dumb terminals, vi, 595
duplicate lines, delete, 586
duplicate lines, remove, 497
duplicate lines, report, 586
dynamic file growth, 24
D_SPELL variables, 503

E

EBCDIC to ASCII, 127
echo characters, tty, 512, 570
echo command, 145
echo variable, 402
ed editor, 16, 148
edcompatible option, ex, 187
edit alternate buffer/file, vi, 603
edit command, ed, 152
edit history file, 211, 289
edit mail message, 338, 342
editing commands, diff, 137
editing commands, ed, 152
editing commands, ex, 173
editing commands, sed, 478
editing history file, csh, 217
editing, text, 16
EDITOR variable, 289, 354, 400
editor, full screen, 589
editor, line, 148, 168
editor, stream, 476
editor, visual, 16
effective user name, 632
egrep command, 160
elapsed execution time, 546, 549
electronic post office, 338
elements, array, 43
elif statment, 434
elite pitch, 315
else statment, 434
emacs editing mode, fc, 216
empty file, create, 552
empty regular expressions, 465
empty statment, ;, 52
emulation, software, 594
emulation, terminals, 594
enable job monitor, 484
enable parity checking, 511
enable printer, 327
encrypt data, 115, 148, 168, 589
end of file, display, 529
END pattern in nawk, 38
end-of-file, EOF, 196
enter ex mode from vi, 603
env command, 164
ENV variable, 283, 401
ENVIRON, nawk environment variable, 41
environment, 10, 164, 201, 398, 484, 490, 519
environment space, 201, 490
environment variable, ENVIRON, nawk, 41
environment variables, 398, 484, 490
environment, change viewing, 418
environment, display, 431, 484, 490
environment, initialized, 309
environment, place variables in, 201, 398, 484, 490
environment, print, 431, 484, 490
eof character, tty, 513
EOF, end-of-file, 196
eol character, tty, 514
equality check file, 89
erase character, 8, 512, 514, 570, 604
erase word character, tty, 516
erorrbells option, ex, 187
ERRNO variable, 399
error messages, ex, 189
error messages, vi, 595
error variable, 576
errors, spelling, 501
escape character, 8, 604
escape from insert mode, vi, 604
escape sequences, 145
escape sequences, regular expressions, 466
escape sequences, remove, 90
escape to shell, 156, 180
establish terminal session, 308
/etc/login, 283
/etc/motd file, 519
/etc/profile, 283, 518
/etc/ttytype, 569
eval command, 166
evaluate arithmetic expressions, 297
evaluate conditional expressions, 541
evaluate expressions, 203
evaluate numbers, 541
evaluate strings, 541
event address, 449
event disgnators, csh history, 217
events, history commands, 211
ex editor, 16, 168
ex macros, 185
ex mode, vi, 603
ex read from shell command, 154, 180
ex tags, 184
ex write to shell command, 155, 180
ex/last_line mode, vi, 596
exception search command, ed, 155
exception search command, ex, 182
exchange hold and pattern space, 481
exec command, 194
execute command, time to, 546, 549
execute permission, 83, 333
execute previous command, 219
execute script, 290
execute, directory structure, 234
execution, command, 99
execution, delay, 495
exercises, 645
EXINIT variable, 187, 190
exit code, 100, 196, 208, 566
exit command, 196
exit from function, 442
exit statement, 51
exit status, 100, 196, 208, 566
exp, exponential function, 47
expand command, 199
expand command line, 166
expand filename, 232
expand input characters, 424
expand tabs to spaces, 199
expansion, alias, 215
expansion, filename, 230
expansion, variable, 404
exponential function, exp, 47
export command, 201
export variable, 576
exported variables, 201, 398
expr command, 203
expr?expr:expr, 46
expression comparison, 203
expression evaluation, 203
expression search, regular, 160, 181, 251
expression, parenthesized, 40, 298
expressions, arithmetic, 297
expressions, conditional, 541
expressions, file selecting, 237
extensions, filename, 229
extract archived files, 105, 109
extract files from archive, 534

F

false command, 208
fc command, 211
FCEDIT variable, 212, 401
features, shell, 280
fg command, 221
fi statement, 434
field separator, 35, 121
field separator, FS, nawk, 41
field separator, sort, 499
field variables, 42
field, key, 273
fields, cut, 121
fields, mail header, 342
fields, nawk, 35
FIFO, see pipes
fignore variable, 402
file attributes, 79
file command, 226
file command, ed, 152
file descriptor, close, 195, 267
file descriptor, copy, 195
file descriptor, open, 195
file descriptor, read from, 266
file descriptor, write to , 266
file descriptors, maximum number of, 576
file formats, 664
file locking, mandatory, 82, 83, 333
file modes, 333
file modes, mask, 582
file modes, set, 582
file naming rules, 230
file owner, chown, 85
file permission modes, chmod, 79
file permissions, 333
file permissions, test, 541
file recovery, ex, 168, 186
file recovery, vi, 594
file search, access time, 234
file search, current directory, 235
file search, current filesystem, 235
file search, file size , 235
file search, file type, 235
file search, filesystem type, 235
file search, group name, 235
file search, inode number, 235
file search, links, 235
file search, local filesystem, 235
file search, match filename, 235
file search, modify time, 235
file search, no group, 235
file search, no user, 235
file search, permissions, 235
file search, status time, 234
file statistics, 236
file system, 24
file system, characteristics, 24
file system, limitations, 24
file system, structure, 24
file type, 235, 332, 333
file, .cshrc, 260, 283, 518, 626
file, .kshrc, 260, 352, 401, 403
file, .login, 260, 283, 295, 352, 518, 571
file, .mailrc, 353
file, .plan, 239
file, .profile, 260, 283, 295, 352, 403, 507, 518, 571, 594
file, .project, 239
file, block special, 333
file, change group ID, chgrp, 76
file, character special, 333
file, command history, 260
file, compress, 395
file, create empty, 552
file, display bottom lines, 529
file, display end of, 529
file, display packed, 414
file, display top lines, 258, 387
file, dividing, 118
file, history, 260
file, maximum size, 576
file, ordinary, 333
file, pack, 395
file, peruse, 372, 416
file, scroll, 373
file, size, 330, 619
file, sort, 497
file, splitting, 118
file, unpack, 395
file, validate contents, 521
file, view, 372, 392, 416
filec variable, 232, 402
filename completion, 232
filename completion variable, 402, 403
filename completion, fc, 215
filename expansion, 230
filename extensions, 229
filename generation, 230
filename generation, disable, 485
filename wildcards, 230
FILENAME, current filename, nawk, 41
filenames, 229
filenames, display, 329
files, archive, 534
files, block special, 26
files, character special, 26
files, combine horizontally, 412
files, combining, 15
files, converting data, 126
files, copying, 15
files, create multiple, 505
files, creating, 14
files, cut columns out, 35, 121
files, cutting, 35, 121
files, deleting, 15
files, displaying, 13, 372, 416, 423
files, divide, 506
files, hard links, 305
files, hidden, 232, 329, 334
files, internal structure, 25
files, joining, 274
files, limitations, 26
files, link together, 305
files, listing, 13
files, locate, 234
files, merge, 425, 497
files, moving, 15, 377
files, moving text between, vi, 606
files, ordinary, 25
files, overwrite, 265
files, paste together, 412
files, problems, 26
files, remove, 469
files, renaming, 15, 377
files, search for, 234
files, selecting columns, 35, 121
files, soft links, 305
files, sort by time, 330
files, special, 26
files, split, 505
files, symbolic links, 305
fill variable with blanks, 575
fill variable with zeros, 576
filter command, ed, 154
filter command, ex, 177
filter operator, vi, 592, 604, 605
filter, terminate, 196
filtering text, ex, 177
filtering text, sed, 476
filtering text, vi, 592, 604, 605
filters, 27
filters, printer, 320
find command, 234
find match {}, (), ex, 189
find match {}, (), vi, 603
finger command, 239
first mail message, 345
flow control, 434
flow control, terminal, 511
flush character, tty, 515
flush input on signal, 512
fmt command, 242
FNR, current record in file, nawk, 41
fold command, 245
fold input lines, 424
fold long lines, 245
folders, mail, 348, 358
fonts, printer, 318
for statement, 52, 436
foreground a job, 221, 270
foreground process, 22, 23, 221, 270
format characters, 145
format files, 423
format text, 242
format within vi, 242
format, commands, 96
format, crontab file, 111
format, date, 124
format, directory listing, 330, 331
format, octal, 392
format, printf, 50
format, tab, 149, 526
format, time, 124, 549
formats, file, 664
formats, printer, 314, 320
forms, printer, 314, 320, 326
FPATH variable, 401
free space, disk, 130
FS, input field separator, nawk, 41
full disks, alleviating, 132
full name, display, 239
full pathnames, 10, 256
full regular expressions, 465
full screen editor, 589
full-screen editing, 170
function directory variable, 401
function, return from, 442
functions, arithmetic, 47
functions, built-in, 46
functions, ksh, 441
functions, nawk, 46
functions, string, 47
functions, user defined, 47

G

garbage can output, 268
garble terminal screen, 91
GECOS information, 74
generate calendar, 61
generate filenames, 229
generate reports, 35
generate spelling list, 504
getline funtion, nawk, 48
getopts command, 247
getting started, vi, 593
global exception search command, ed, 155
global exception search command, ex, 182
global RE print, 160, 223, 251
global search command, ed, 152
global search command, ex, 181
global substitute, gsub function, 47
global variables, ksh, 201, 398
global variables, nawk, 48
GMT, 123
goto address, vi, 602
GPID, group process ID, 277
grant write permission to tty, 367, 628, 624
grep command, 251
group access permission, 76
group file access permissions, 81
group ID, 264, 380
group ID, change, 519
group login, 380
group name, 264
group operators, (), 40, 298
group process ID, 277
group statement, {} , 51
grouping keywords, 285
grouping regular expressions, 464
groups command, 255
growing file, monitor, 529
gsub, global substitute function, 47

H

hang up phone, 510
hang-up, no, 390
hardpaths variable, 402
hardtabs, 526
hardtabs option, ex, 187
hardware requirements, 4
hardware tab spacing, 187, 525
hardware type, system, 584
hardware, identify, 336
hash command, 256
hashcheck command, 501
hashmake command, 501
head command, 258
head, page, 424
header line of man page, 620
headers, mail, 342
heterogeneous environment, 432
hexadecimal dump, 392
hidden files, 232, 329, 334
hierarchical file system, 24
histchar variable, 214, 262, 402
HISTFILE variable, 213, 261, 401
history command, 260
history file, 211, 261
history file editor, FCEDIT, 212
history variable, 213, 402
HISTSIZE variable, 213, 261, 401
hold print request, 314
hold space, sed, 480
HOME variable, 261, 353, 401, 402
home variable, 402
homogeneous environment, 432
horizontal movement, vi, 600
hostname command, 263
hostname, dipslay, 263
hostname, set, 263
hung process, 277
hung shell, 290
H_SPELL variables, 503

I

I/O, 9, 10, 265
I/O streams, 10, 265
I/O, direct terminal, 573
I/O, piping, 10, 265
I/O, read standard input, see reading
I/O, redirection, 10, 14, 194, 265
I/O, standard, 10, 265
I/O, standard error, 10, 265
I/O, standard input, 10, 265
I/O, standard output, 10, 265
id command, 264
identify hardware, 336
identify terminal type, 401, 569, 593
idle time, display, 239, 628
if statement, 52, 434
IFS variable, 287, 401
ignore carriage return, 511
ignore control characters, sort, 498
ignore leading blanks, sort, 499
ignore signals, 562
ignoreeof variable, 402
immune to hang-up, 390
implicit invocation, 284
in-line editor variable, 401
in-line history editing, 214, 289
increase CPU priority, 385
increment operators, 46
indent command, ex, 177
indent operator, vi, 592, 604, 605
indent text, 425, 605
indenting text, ex, 177
indenting text, vi, 592, 604, 605
indention width, ex, 189
index node, 25
index of next option, 248
index string function, nawk, 47
inform users of news, 383
information field, 74
information, pass to child process, 201
information, user, 239
ingorecase option, ex, 187
initial requirements, 4
initialize environment, 309
initialize terminal, 555, 569
inode number, 25
input block size, 127
input characters, map tty, 511
input characters, map, vi, 607
input control, nawk, 48
input field separator, FS, nawk, 41, 48
input mode motion definitions, vi, 608
input mode, ed, 149
input mode, ex, 175
input mode, vi, 596, 604
input modes, tty, 510
input record separator, RS, 42, 48
input, terminal, 268
Input/Output, see I/O
insert command, ed, 153
insert command, ex, 175
insert command, sed, 480
insert command, vi, 604
insert control characters, vi, 604, 607
insert mode, ed, 152
insert mode, escape from vi, 596, 604
insert mode, ex, 175
insert mode, vi, 596, 604
insert, repeat last, vi, 604
inserting text, ex, 175
inserting text, vi, 604
int, integer function, 47
integer arithmetic, 300
integer function, int, 47
integer variable, 576
interactive confirmation, copying files, 103
interactive full screen editor, 589
interactive mode, job, 221, 270
interactive renaming, cpio, 108
interactive, global command, ed, 153
interactive, substitution, ex, 182
interface to ex, 592
interface to shell, 170
interface to vi, 170
interface, hardware, 22
internal field separator, 401
internal, mailx variables, 353
interpret command line, 166
interpretation, variable, 404
interpretive programming language, 35
interpretive programming language, ksh, 280
interpretor, 432
interrupt character, tty, 514, 570
interrupt signal, 510
INTERRUPT, key, 13
invocation, shell, 283
items, news, 383
iteration commands, 436

J

job command, bg, 59
job control, 23, 221, 270, 508
job monitor, 485
jobs command, 270
join command, 273
join command, ed, 153
join command, ex, 178
join command, vi, 609
join files, 274
join lines, ex, 178
join lines, vi, 609
justification, right margin, 242

K

kernel, 1, 22
kernel stack size, 450
key field, 273
key, encryption, 115, 148, 152, 155, 168, 589
keyboard, 10
keys, backspace, 8
keys, correction, 8
keys, delete, 13, 595
keys, interrupt, 13, 595
keys, sort, 500
keystrokes, store multiple, 185
keyword commands, 98
keyword parameters, 400, 485
keyword variables, 400, 485
keywords, grouping, 285
kill character, 8, 512, 514, 570, 604
kill command, 276
kill vi session, 595
Korn shell, 280
ksh, 1, 2
ksh shell, 280
ksh, restricted, 284

L

label, sed, 481
large characters, create, 55
last argument, ksh, 404
last line, vi, 595
last lines, display, 529
last mail message, 345
last system boot, 629
leave command, 295
leave only filename, 406
leave only pathname, 406
left justify variable, 575
left margin justification, 525
left shift parameters, 492
length, page, 424
length, printer page, 314
length, string length function, 47
let command, 297
letters, see characters
limit, core file size, 576
limit, CPU time, 576
limit, data segment size, 576
limit, file descriptors, 576
limit, file size, 576
limit, hard, 576
limit, open files, 576
limit, soft, 576
limit, stack segment, 576
limit, virtual memory size, 576
limits, process, 450
limits, vi, 599
line command, 301
line count, 618
line editor, 168
line movement, vi, 600
line numbering ex, 188
line numbers, display, 68, 387, 425
line pitch, 315
line printer, 316
line units, vi, 592, 597
LINENO variable, 399
lines of data, 35
lines to scroll, ex, 189
LINES variable, 555
lines, fold long, 245
lines, join, ex, 178
lines, join, vi, 609
lines, see records also
link across file systems, 306
link files together, 305
links, hard, 305
links, remove, 469
links, soft, 305
links, symbolic, 305
lisp option, ex, 188
list command, ed, 153
list command, sed, 480
list directory contents, 329
list exported variables, 201
list groups, 255
list mail messages, 345
list option, ex, 188
list pathnames, 215
list user information, 239
LISTER variable, 355
listing files, 13
listusers command, 304
literals, 231
ln command, 305
local modes, tty, 512
local variables, 201, 398
locate a command, 622, 624, 626
locate files, 234
locate path to man page, 624
locate path to source code, 624
lock up terminal, preventing, 227
locking, mandatory file, 82, 83, 333
log, natural logarithm function, 47
logged in users, display, 588, 628
logging in, 7
logging out, 20
logical AND file operator, 237
logical AND operator, ksh, 285, 435
logical NOT file operator, 237
logical operators, nawk, 45
logical OR file operator, 237
logical OR operator, ksh, 285, 435
logical pages, 387
login account, 5
login command, 308
login disconnect, 309
login name, 312
login name, display, 239
login shell, display, 239
login time, display, 239
login time-out, 309
login to new account, 518
login to new group, 380
logname command, 312
LOGNAME variable, 312, 401, 628
logout command, 196, 197
looping commands, 436
looping through arrays, 44
loops, redirecting output, 268
lower CPU priority, 385
lowercase characters, 7
lp command, 313
LPDEST variable, 314
lpi, lines per inch, 315
lpq command, 318
lpr command, 320
lprm command, 323
lpsched command, 316
lpstat command, 325
ls command, 329

M

machid command, 336
machine type, 336
macros within macros, allow, ex, 189
macros, command mode, vi, 607
macros, ex, 185
macros, insert mode, vi, 607
magic characters, see regular expressions
magic file, 226
magic option, ex, 188
magnetic tape device, 536
mail alias group, 340, 346
mail checking variable, 401
mail command, 338
mail command mode, 345
mail commands, 346
mail folder, 348
mail headers, 342
mail message list, 345
mail recipients, 340
mail shell variables, 352
mail tilde escape commands, 342
MAIL variable, 353, 401, 402
mail, edit message, 338, 342
mail, organizing, 358
mail, read message, 338, 341, 344
mail, remote, 357
mail, review message, 338
mail, send message, 338, 341
mail, set variable, 350
mail, store message, 338
MAILCHECK variable, 401
MAILPATH variable, 401
MAILRC variable, 353
mailx command, 338
make directory, 369
man command, 363
man page, header line, 620
man page, locate path to, 624
man pages, 33
man pages, man, 363
mandatory file locking, 82, 83, 333
manipulation, string, 47, 206
manipulation, text, vi, 592, 603
manuals, on-line reference, 363
manuals, see documentation
manuals, see man pages
map command characters, vi, 607
map ESCAPE key, 485
map input characters, 511
map input characters, vi, 607
map uppercase to lowercase, 187
margin justification, left, 525
margin justification, right, 242
mark command, ed, 153
mark command, ex, 176
mark command, vi, 602
markdirs option, 485
marking text, ed, 153
marking text, ex, 176
marking text, vi, 602
mask directory modes, 582
mask file modes, 582
master directory, see root
match beginning of line, 463
match beginning of word, 463
match end of line, 463
match end of word, 463
match occurrences of pattern, 464
match pattern(s), nawk, 36
match string operator, nawk, 39
match {}, (), ex, 189
match {}, (), vi, 603
match, substring match function, 47
matched string length, RLENGTH, 41
matching operator, 203
max files in directory, 370
maximum CPU time allowed, 576
maximum number of file descriptors, 576
maximum real memory used, 550
maximum size core file, 576
maximum size data segment, 576
maximum size file, 576
maximum size stack segment, 576
maximum size virtual memory, 576
MBOX variable, 355
media type, physical, 536
memory address, 448
memory utilization, 449
memory, shared, 550
merge input files, 425, 497
mesg command, 367
mesg option, ex, 188
message to user, write, 633
message, broadcast, 617
messages, allow, ex, 188
metacharacters, ex, 188
metacharacters, ksh, 284
metacharacters, see regular expressions also
mkdir command, 369
mode, file, 333
modes, mask directory, 582
modes, mask file, 582
modes, see permission
modes, set directory, 582
modes, set file, 582
modes, vi, 596
modifiers, csh history, 217
modifiers, variable, 406
modify variable values, 406, 484, 490, 575
modularize, 21
module, type, 2
monitor growing file, 529
monitor, job, 485
more command, 372
MORE variable, 375
motd file, 519
motion commands, vi, 592, 599
move command, ed, 154
move command, ex, 176
move files, 15, 377
movement, vi, 599, 600
moving around buffer, vi, 592
moving text between files, ex, 177
moving text between files, vi, 606
moving text, ex, 176
moving text, vi, 606
MS-DOS to UNIX cross reference, 662
multicolumn output, 412, 423
multidimensional array, 44
multifile viewing, 372, 416
multiple files, combining, 69, 412
multiple files, copying, 69
multiple files, displaying, 68
multiple files, editing, 177
multitasking, 22
multiuser, 22
mv command, 377

N

name of system, 584
name, group, 255, 264
name, user, 264
named pipe, 333
named register, ex, 176
named registers, vi, 598
named variables, 400
naming rules, file, 230
natural logarithm function, log, 47
nawk, 35
nawk input control, 48
nawk output control, 49
nawk variables, 41
nawk, regular expressions, 38
nawk, select lines, 37
nawk, writing programs, 37
new environment, 164, 519
new-lines, visually diplay, 188
newgrp command, 380
news command, 383
news, for users, 383
NF, current field, 41
nice command, 385
nice value, 448
nightmare, 21
nl command, 387
nobeep variable, 403
noclobber option, ksh, 485
node name of system, 584
noglob variable, 403
nohup command, 390
nonmatch string operator, 39
nonomatch variable, 403
nonprintable characters, 68, 153, 480
notify to leave, 295
notify variable, 403
novice option, ex, 188
NR, current record, 41
null regular expressions, 465
null variable interpretation, 404
number command, ed, 154
number lines, 68, 387
number of arguments, ARGC, 41
number of array elements, ksh, 404
number option, ex, 188
number output lines, 425
number registers, scan, vi, 609
number registers, vi, 597
number to string, convert, 53
numbered variables, 398
numeric comparison tests, test, 543
numeric order sort, 498
numeric variables, nawk, 41, 42

O

objects, see units also
objects, vi text, 592, 597
octal dump, 392
office location, display, 239
OFMT, output format, nawk, 41
OFS, output field separator, nawk, 41
OLDPWD variable, 399
on-line reference manuals, 363
one dimensional array, ksh, 403
one dimensional array, nawk, 43
open buffer for insert, vi, 604
open file descriptor, 195
open mode, allow, ex, 188
open mode, ex, 170, 171
open option, ex, 188
operating system, 1
operating system information, 584
operator, background, 285
operator, change vi, 592, 604, 605
operator, cut vi, 592, 604, 606
operator, deindent vi, 592, 604, 605
operator, delete vi, 592, 604, 605
operator, filter vi, 592, 604, 605
operator, indent vi, 592, 604, 605
operator, logical AND, 285
operator, logical OR, 285
operator, matching, 203
operator, pipe creating, 284, 285
operator, sequential execution, 284
operator, yank vi, 592, 604, 606
operators, arithmetic assignment, 45, 299
operators, arithmetic, expr, 204
operators, arithmetic, let/@, 297
operators, chmod, 82
operators, decrement, 46
operators, grouping, 40, 298
operators, increment, 46
operators, logical, 45
operators, relational , 39
operators, string, nawk, 39
operators, string, test, 543
operators, subshell, 285
operators, test, 543
operators, text, vi, 592, 604
operators, tty baud rate, 570
OPTARG variable, 247, 398
optimize option, ex, 188
OPTIND variable, 247, 398
option, (no)clobber, ksh, 485
options, parse, 247
options, printer, 314
options, process, 247
options, resetting shell, 485
options, setting shell, 485
OR operator, binary, 544
ordinary file, 333
ordinary files, see files
organize mail, 358
ORS, output record separator, nawk, 41
other users file access permissions, 81
out of space, 231
output block size, 127
output control, nawk, 49
output field separator, OFS, nawk, 41
output format, OFMT, nawk, 41
output record separator, ORS, nawk, 41
output, terminal, 268
output, unbuffered, 67
overwrite existing files, 104
overwrite files, 265
owner file access permissions, 81

P

pack command, 395
pack data, 395
packed file, display, 414
page command, 372
page faults, number of, 550
page header, 424
page length, 424
page width, 425
PAGER variable, 354, 356
paragraph delimeters, ex, 188
paragraph movement, vi, 600
paragraph units, vi, 592, 597
paragraphs option, ex, 188
parameters, double digit, 404
parameters, keyword, 400
parameters, positional, 247, 398
parameters, see variables also
parent process ID, 448
parenthesized expression, 40, 298
parity checking, 511
parse positional parameters, 247
pass information to child process, 201
password, 7
password file information field, change, 74
password requirements, 410
password, aging, 409
password, changing, 12, 408
password, dial-up, 309
password, login, 308, 408
password, setting, 12, 408
password, su, 518
paste command, 412
paste files together, 412
pasting text, ex, 177
pasting text, vi, 606
PATH variable, 12, 256, 401, 403, 491
path variable, 403
pathname completion, fc, 215
pathname listing, fc, 215
pathname, display only, 141
pathnames, 10
pattern space, 477
pattern, match, 36
patterns, ranges, 40
pause after each page, 425
pcat command, 414
percentage of CPU utilization, 449
percentage of memory utilization, 449
permission strings, chmod, 82
permission to talk, 531
permission, group access, 76
permission, set execute, 83
permission, set mandatory file locking, 82, 83, 333
permission, set read, 82
permission, set set-group-ID, 82, 83
permission, set set-user-ID, 82, 83
permission, set sticky bit, 82, 83
permission, set write, 83
permission, special modes, 83
permissions file, 333
permissions, test, 541
perusal commands, pg, 417
peruse file, 372, 416
pg command, 416
philosophy, 21
phone number, display, 239
physical media type, 536
pica pitch, 315
PID, process ID, 277, 445
pipe creating operator, 284, 285
pipe mail message, 349
pipe output diversion, 539
pipe, named, 333
pipeline commands, 98
pipes, 26
piping, 10
pitch, printer character, 315
pitch, printer line, 315
popd command, 421
port identification, tty, 570
portability, 22
portability of cpio archives, 107
portable software, 23
positional parameters, 247, 398
positional parameters, setting, 484
positional parameters, sort, 486
post office, electronic, 338
PPID variable, 399
pr command, 423
precede with line numbers, 68, 387, 425
precise regular expressions, 464
predefined tab stops, 525
prefix, remove filename, 57, 406
prefix, remove pathname, 57, 406
present directory, 11, 71, 456
preserve editor buffer, ex, 186
preserved editor file, 168, 594
prevent filename expansion, 406
previous commands, display, 262
previous commands, see history file
print command, 428
print command, ed, 154
print command, sed, 480
print control characters, 68, 153
print control characters, vi, 595
print jobs, 313, 318
print non-ASCII characters, 68, 153, 480, 595
print queue, display, 325
print request cancel, 65
print shell environment, 431, 484, 490
print statement, nawk, 49
print text, 428
print to command, nawk, 50
printenv command, 431
printer class, 326
printer command, cancel, 65
printer fonts, 318
printer formats, 314, 320
printer forms, display, 326
printer queue, 313, 318
printer request priority, 315
printer status, 325
PRINTER variable, 318
printer, disable/enable, 327
printf format, 50
printf statement, nawk, 49
printf variable format, 50
priority, printer request, 315
priority, alter CPU, 385
private information, 116
procedure, shell, 281
process command line, 166
process control, 221, 270, 508
process execution time, 546, 549
process flags, 448, 450
process ID, 276, 445, 448
process kernel stack size, 450
process options, 247
process owner, 449
process priority, 448
process real memory size, 450
process signals, 563
process size, 449
process sleep time, 450
process sleeping, 495
process soft memory limit, 450
process status, 445, 448
process swap address, 449
process user ID, 449
process virtual memory size, 450
process, attached/detached, 270
process, hung, 277
process, in background, 22, 23, 270, 507
process, in foreground, 22, 23, 270
process, runaway, 277
process, stopped, 59, 507
process, suspended, 23, 59, 270, 495, 507, 523
process, terminate, 196
process, wait on background, 614
processor utilization, 448
program, shell, 281
programming examples, nawk, 53
programming language, C, 23
programming language, ksh, 280
programming language, nawk, 35
programming, shell, 432
prompt command, ed, 154
prompt option, ex, 188
prompt variable, 288
prompt variable, 288, 403
prompt, change ed, 148
prompt, more, 372
prompt, page, 372
prompt, primary shell, 401
prompt, secondary shell, 401
prompt, select, 401
prompting, shell, 288
pros of vi, 593
ps command, 445
PS1 variable, 401
PS2 variable, 401
PS3 variable, 401
PS4 variable, 401
pushd command, 454
put command, ex, 177
putting text, ex, 177
pwd, 11, 456
PWD variable, 399, 456

Q

Ctrl-Q, stop output, 511
QIC cartridge tape device, 536
query terminal database, 555
quick substitution, history commands, 212
quit command, ed, 154
quit command, sed, 480
quit signal, tty, 514
quoting, 288

R

random number function, rand, nawk, 47
RANDOM variable, 399
range patterns, nawk, 40
ranges, address, ed, 150
ranges, address, ex, 171
ranges, address, sed, 477
read command, 458, 487
read command, ed, 154
read command, ex, 180
read command, sed, 480
read from file descriptor, 266
read line, 301, 458
read mail message, 338, 341, 344
read permission, 82, 333
read-ahead feature, 8
read-only mode, ex, 188
read-only mode, vi, 589
readonly command, 458
readonly option, ex, 188
real memory used, 550
reassign positional parameters, 492
receiving mail, 19
recipients, mail, 340
record separator, RS, 42
records, 35
records, selecting, 37
recover ex file, 168, 186
recover vi file, 594
recursive, nawk functions, 48
recursively descend directories, 234
recursively, display directories, 329
redirecting output in loops, 268
redirection, see I/O
redo command, ex, 178
redraw option, ex, 188
reduce command search time, 256
reduce CPU priority, 385
reduce file size, 395
reduce muliple characters, 599
reduce redundant code, 441
reedit a file, ex, 178
reference manuals, on-line, 363
referencing tags, 185
referencing variables, 398, 404
register, macros, vi, 608
register, named, ex, 176
register, undo, ex, 176
registers, vi, 597
regular expressions, 38, 149, 161, 183, 251, 461-466
regular expressions, anchors, 463
regular expressions, concatenation, 467
regular expressions, empty, 465
regular expressions, escape sequences, 466
regular expressions, full, 465
regular expressions, grouping, 464
regular expressions, null, 465
regular expressions, precise, 464
regular expressions, simple, 461
regular expressions, single character, 462
regular expressions, special, 465
regular expressions, substitute, 465
relational operators , nawk, 39
relation database join, 273
relative addressing, pg, 417
relative path, 71
relative pathnames, 10
release of operating system, 584
remap option, ex, 189
reminder service, 295
reminder service, calendar, 63
remote mail, 357
remove blank lines, 586
remove control characters, col, 90
remove crontab file, 111
remove directories, 469
remove duplicate lines, 497, 586
remove empty lines, 68
remove escape sequences, col, 90
remove filename prefix, 57, 406
remove filename suffix, 141, 406
remove files, 469
remove leading blanks from variable, 575
remove links, 469
remove pathname prefix, 57, 406
remove print jobs, 323
remove top directory from stack, 421
remove variables, 484, 490
rename directories, 15, 377
rename files, 15, 377
repeat command line processing, 166
repeat last command, vi, 609
repeat last ex command, vi, 609
repeat last insert, vi, 604
repetitive tab stops, 526
replace argument list, ex, 179
replace characters, 560, 605
replace current process, 194
replace hold space, sed, 480
replace pattern space, sed, 480
replace text, vi, 605
reply to sender, 350
REPLY variable, 399
report duplicate lines, 586
report modifications, ex, 189
report option, ex, 189
report process status, 445
reprint character, tty, 515
request, printer, 314
request-ID, print, 65
requirements, password, 410
reserved variables, 399
reset arguments, shell , 485
reset ex options, 186
reset options, shell , 485
reset terminal, 556, 569
reset tty modes, 571
resident set size of process, 450
resident set size of text, 451
resource limits, 576
restrict sort fields, 498
restricted editor, 149
restricted ksh, 284
resume print request, 314
resume stopped job, 221
retrieve data, 35
retrieve text, ex, 178
retrieve text, vi, 597
return code, 100, 196, 208, 566
return statement, 442
return statement, nawk, 48
return status, 100, 196, 208, 566
reverse order sort, 498
review mail message, 338
rewind argument list, ex, 179
right justify variable, 575, 576
RLENGTH, matched string length, 41
rm command, 469
root directory, 24
rows of data, 35
rows, tty, 514
RS, record separator, 42
RSTART, start posistion of matched string, 42
rules, command syntax, 97
rules, file naming, 230
run level of system, 629
runaway process, 277

S

Ctrl-S, start output, 511
save and quit ex, 186
save mail message, 350
save text, vi, 597
save w/o checking, ex, 190
savehist variable, 213, 261, 403
scan number registers, vi, 609
screen, 10
screen adjusting, vi, 602
screen clear, 87, 556
screen control, more, 374
screen movement, vi, 600
screen units, vi, 592, 597
screen viewing, more, 374
screen, scroll, 416
screen, vi, 17
script command, 474
script of terminal session, 474
script, shell, 281, 432
scripts, sed, 476
scroll option, ex, 189
scroll screen, 373, 416
scrolling, vi, 602, 603
SCSI tape device, 536
search a file, 160, 223, 251
search command, ed, 152, 155
search command, ex, 181
search directories, 234
search directory permissions, 333
search for command, 99, 256
search for directory, 72, 234
search for files, 72, 234
search for pattern, 160, 223, 251
search for pattern, pg, 418
search for string, 160, 223, 251
search for word, 160, 223, 251
search man page header lines, 620
search, character, vi, 601
search, fast file, 223
search, man page header lines, 33
search, simple, 223
search, string, vi, 601
search, wrap around buffer, ex, 190
searche units, vi, 592, 597
SECONDS variable, 399
section movement, vi, 600
section units, vi, 592, 597
sections option, ex, 189
sections, man page, 365
security, 24
security, data, 115
sed command, 476
seed function, srand, 47
select lines, 37
select prompt, 401
selecting file, expressions, 237
send mail message, 338, 341
send messages to tty, 367
send signal to process, 276
send signals, device driver, 516
sending mail, 19
sentence movement, vi, 600
sentence units, vi, 592, 597
separate options, 247
separate words, shell, 287
separator, ex command, 172, 186
separator, field FS, nawk, 41
separator, field, nawk, 35, 121
separator, input field FS, nawk, 41, 48
separator, input field, ksh, 287, 401
separator, input record RS, nawk, 42, 48
separator, output field OFS, nawk, 41
separator, output record ORS, nawk, 41
separator, record RS, nawk, 42
separator, subscript SUBSEP, nawk, 42, 44
sequential execution operator, 284
session, killing vi, 595
set arguments, shell , 485
set command, 484
set date, 123
set directory permissions, 79, 582
set ex options, 186
set file permissions, 79, 582
set hostname, 263
set mail variables, 350
set options, ex, 186
set options, shell , 485
set read-only mode, ex, 188
set tab stops, 525
set terminal I/O options, 509, 569
set terminal type, 569, 593
set time, 123
set variable read-only, 576
set variables, 484, 490
set window size, ex, 190
set window size, pg, 419
set, ex option setting, 187
set-group-ID permission, 82, 333
set-user-ID permission, 82, 333
setenv command, 490
setting password, 12
sh command, 1, 2
SHACCT variable, 401
shared memory, 550
shell, 1, 27
shell arithmetic, 300
shell command separator, 96
shell command syntax, 98
shell environment, 201, 398, 484, 490, 519
shell environment, see environment
shell features, 280
shell option, ex, 189
shell procedure, 281
shell programming, 432
shell script, 281
SHELL variable, 356, 402
shell variable, 403
shell, see csh
shell, see ksh
shell, which version, 9
shift command, 492
shift posistional parameters, 492
shiftwidth option, ex, 189
shorthand command, see alias
shorthand for ls, 331
shorthand, file referencing, 230
showmatch option, ex, 189
showmode option, ex, 189
signal queue, 277
signal, break, 511
signal, hang-up, 390
signal, interrupt, 510
signals, 277
signals, catch, 562
signals, check for, 512
signals, ignore, 562
similarities, directory, 130
simple command syntax, 96
simple commands, 98
simple regular expressions, 461
simulaneous output redirection, 539
sin, sine function, 47
sine function, sin, 47
single character regular expressions, 462
single quotes, 288
size history file, 213, 261
size of file, 330, 619
size of process, 449
size window, ex, 174, 190
size window, pg, 419
skip backward, pg, 418
skip forward, pg, 418
sleep command, 495
slowopen option, ex, 189
software emulation, 594
software requirements, 4
sort ascending, 500
sort by time, files, 330
sort command, 497
sort descending, 500
sort keys, 500
sort positional parameters, 486
source code editing with tags, 168, 590
source code, locate path to, 624
source options, ex, 186
source script, csh, 290
source script, ksh, 290
spaces to tabs, convert, 199
spawn child process, 100
spawn new process, 445
special characters, filename generation, 229
special characters, ksh, 284
special characters, see regular expressions also
special modes permission, 83
special regular expressions, 465
special variables, 399
spell checking, 501
spell command, 501
spellin command, 501
spellout command, 501
split command, 505
split files, 505
split, string split function, nawk, 47
splitting a file, 118
splitting strings into arrays, csh, 407
splitting strings into arrays, nawk, 45
spool output to printer, 313, 318
sprintf, string format function, 47
sqrt, square root function, 47
square root function, sqrt, 47
squeeze occurrence characters, 599
srand, seed function, 47
stack segment, maximum size, 576
stack space, unshared, 550
stack, directory, 142
standard error, see I/O
standard I/O, 195
standard I/O, close, 195
standard I/O, copy, 195
standard I/O, open, 195
standard input, see I/O
standard output, see I/O
start posistion of matched string, RSTART, nawk, 42
start time of process, 449
state of job, 270
state of process, 270
statistics, file, 236
statistics, process execution, 546, 549
status line, vi, 595, 603
status of mail message, 342
status of process, 448, 450
status variable, 400
status, printer, 325
sticky bit permission, 82, 333
stop character, tty, 515
stop command, 507
stop editor, ex, 180, 186
stop process, 507
stopped process, 59, 507
storage, see directories
storage, see files
store mail message, 338
store multiple keystrokes, 185
store related information, see arrays
store text, ex, 176
store text, vi, 597
store values, 398, 484, 490, 575
store values, see arrays
stored tab stops, 526
stream editor, 476
Streams, see I/O
string comparison, 435
string comparison tests, 543
string format, sprintf function, 47
string manipulation, 47, 206
string operators, nawk, 39
string search, 160, 223, 251
string search, vi, 601
string split function, 47
string to number, convert, 53
string variables, nawk, 42
structure, file system, 24
structure, files, 25
structured programming, 433
structureless files, 24
stty command, 509
su command, 518
sub, substring search function, 47
subdirectories, search for files, 234
subscript separator, SUBSEP, 42, 44
subscripts, array, 44, 403-405
subsections, man page, 365
SUBSEP, subscript separator, 42, 44
subshell operators, 285
substitute % last replacement RE, 155
substitute & last RE, 155, 466
substitute command, ed, 154
substitute command, ex, 182
substitute command, sed, 480
substitute options, ex, 182
substitute regular expressions, 465
substitute, gsub function, 47
substitution, tilde, 286
substitution, variable, 404
substr, substring select function, 47
substring match, match function, 47
substring search, sub function, 47
substring select, substr function, 47
suffix, remove filename, 141, 406
sum command, 521
super-user, login as, 518
suspend character, tty, 515
suspend command, 523
suspended process, 23, 59, 270, 495, 407, 523
SV, 2
swapping bytes, cpio, 108
swapping bytes, dd, 127
swaps, number of, 550
switch between files, ex, 178
switch between programs, ex, 523
switch groups, 380
symbolic file permission modes, 82
symbolic labels, ex, 184
synchronize clock, 124
syntax errors, check for, 485
syntax rules, command, 97
system execute time, 546, 549
system hardware type, 584
system name, 584, 263
system node name, 584
system run level, 629
system time, cumulative, 549
S_SPELL variables, 503

T

tab format, 149, 526
tab right shiftwidth, vi, 604
tab spacing, hardware, 187, 525
tab stops, set, 525
table of contents, archive, 534
tabs command, 525
tabs to spaces, 199
tabs, visually display, 188
tabstop option, ex, 189
tag file, 184
taglength option, ex, 189
tags command, 184, 590
tags option, ex, 189
tags, referencing, 185, 590
tags, source code editing with, 168, 590
tail command, 529
talk command, 531
tape archive, 534
tape devices, 536
tar command, 534
task, 445
tee command, 539
term option, ex, 189
TERM variable, 170, 402, 403, 491, 555, 593
term variable, 403
termcap database, 555
TERMCAP variable, 402, 594
terminal device, display, 573
terminal garbage, preventing, 227
terminal I/O options, set, 509, 569
terminal input, 268
terminal keyboard, see keyboard
terminal name, display, 239
terminal output, 268
terminal reset, 556, 569
terminal screen, see screen
terminal session, copy of , 474
terminal session, establish, 308
terminal type, 11, 569, 593
terminal type variable, TERM, 401, 569, 593
terminal type, ex, 189, 190
terminal, flow control, 511
terminals emulation, 594
terminate filter, 196
terminate process, 196
terminfo database, 555
TERMINFO variable, 402, 594
terms, 635
terse mode, ex, 189
terse option, ex, 189
test command, 541
test conditional expressions, 541
test directory permissions, 541
test file permissions, 541
test number comparisons, 543
test string comparisons, 542
text manipulation, vi, 592, 603
text pattern search, 160, 223, 251
text, editing, see editing
text, formatting, 242
text, inserting, ex, 175
text, inserting, vi, 604
text, printing, 428
text, search for, 160, 223, 251
text, transposing, vi, 609
tilde escape commands, mail, 342
tilde substitution, 72, 286
time command, 546
time command, csh, 549
time format, 124
time to execute command, 546, 549
time variable, 403
time zone variable, 402
time, display, 123
time, set, 123
time-out, login, 309
timeout option, ex, 189
timeout, ex, 189
times command, ksh, 549
timex command, SV, 546
TMOUT variable, 402
too many arguments, 231
top of file, display, 258
touch command, 552
tput command, 555
tr command, 559
trace variable, 401
tracked alias, 31, 256, 485
transform command, sed, 481
transform data, 35
translate characters, 599
transport data, 110
transposing text, vi, 609
trap command, 562
tree structure, 24
true command, 566
tset command, 569
tty command, 573
tty control modes, 510
tty input modes, 510
tty port settings, 308
tty, control messages to, 367
tty, set options, 509
ttytype database, 659
ttytype option, ex, 190
type command, 622
type of data, 226
type of machine, 336
type variables, 398
type, also see version
type, data, 223
type, file, 332
type, terminal, 11, 569, 593
type, variable, 398
typeless data, 35
typeset command, 575
TZ variable, 402

U

ulimit command, 579
umask command, 582
unalias, 29
unbuffered output, 67
uncompress data, 395
undo command, ed, 155
undo command, ex, 178
undo command, vi, 609
undo register, ex, 176
undo register, vi, 597
unexpand command, 199
uniq command, 586
uniq duplicate lines, 497
units, addresses, vi, 592, 597
units, buffer, vi, 592, 597
units, characters, vi, 592, 597
units, lines, vi, 592, 597
units, paragraphs, vi, 592, 597
units, screen, vi, 592, 597
units, searches, vi, 592, 597
units, sections, vi, 592, 597
units, sentences, vi, 592, 597
units, words, vi, 592, 597
Universal time, 123
UNIX, 1
UNIX device independence, 24
UNIX, which version, 9
unnamed registers, vi, 597
unpack command, 395
unpack data, 395
unset command, 484
unset variable interpretation, 404
unset variables, 484, 490
unsetenv command, 490
unshared data space, 550
unshared stack space, 550
until loop, 439
unused characters, vi, 598
update dumb terminals, ex, 188
update file, 157
update file access time, 552
update file modification time, 552
uppercase characters, 7
uppercase to lowercase, 187
usage, disk, 143
user defined variables, 42
user execute time, 546, 549
user ID, 264
user ID of process, 449
user ID, change, 519
user information, 239
user name, 264
user time, cumulative, 549
user variable, 403
USER variable, 403, 491
user, talk to, 531
username, 312
username, login, 308
users command, 588
users file access permissions, 81
users, list, 304
users, write to all, 614
using mail folders, 358
utilization, CPU, 449
utilization, memory, 449

V

validate data, 35
validate file contents, 521
value of aliases, display, 622
value of variables, 400, 484, 490, 575
variable assignment, command line, 42
variable assignment, default, 403
variable expansion, 404
variable format, printf, 50
variable interpretation, 404
variable modifiers, 406
variable, argv, 400
variable, arithmetic base, 576
variable, CDPATH, 400
variable, cdpath, 402
variable, COLUMNS, 214, 331, 372, 400, 555
variable, convert to lowercase, 576
variable, convert to uppercase, 576
variable, cwd, 400, 456
variable, DEAD, 354
variable, define as function, 576
variable, echo, 402
variable, EDITOR, 289, 354, 400
variable, ENV, 283, 401
variable, ERRNO, 399
variable, error, 576
variable, EXINIT, 190
variable, export, 576
variable, FCEDIT, 212, 401
variable, fignore, 402
variable, filec, 232, 402
variable, fill with blanks, 575
variable, fill with zeros, 576
variable, FPATH, 401
variable, hardpaths, 402
variable, histchar, 214, 262, 402
variable, HISTFILE, 213, 261, 401
variable, history, 213, 402
variable, HISTSIZE, 213, 261, 401
variable, HOME, 261, 353, 401, 402
variable, home, 402
variable, IFS, 287, 401
variable, ignoreeof, 402
variable, integer, 576
variable, left justify, 575
variable, LINENO, 399
variable, LISTER, 355
variable, LOGNAME, 312, 401, 628
variable, LPDEST, 314
variable, MAIL, 353, 401
variable, mail, 402
variable, MAILCHECK, 401
variable, MAILPATH, 401
variable, MAILRC, 353
variable, MBOX, 355
variable, MORE, 375
variable, nobeep, 403
variable, noglob, 403
variable, nonomatch, 403
variable, notify, 403
variable, OLDPWD, 399
variable, OPTARG, 247, 398
variable, OPTIND, 247, 398
variable, OPTION, 247
variable, PAGER, 354, 356
variable, PATH, 12, 256, 401, 403, 491
variable, path, 403
variable, PPID, 399
variable, PRINTER, 318
variable, prompt, 288, 403
variable, PS1, 401
variable, PS2, 401
variable, PS3, 401
variable, PS4, 401
variable, PWD, 399
variable, RANDOM, 399
variable, remove leading blanks, 575
variable, REPLY, 399
variable, right justify, 575, 576
variable, savehist, 213, 261, 403
variable, SECONDS, 399
variable, set read-only, 576
variable, SHACCT, 401
variable, SHELL, 356, 402
variable, shell, 403
variable, status, 400
variable, TERM, 170, 402, 403, 416, 490, 555, 593
variable, term, 403
variable, TERMCAP, 402, 416, 594
variable, TERMINFO, 402, 416, 594
variable, time, 403
variable, TMOUT, 402
variable, TZ, 402
variable, user, 403
variable, USER, 403, 491
variable, verbose, 214, 403
variable, VISUAL, 356, 402
variables, arithmetic, 297
variables, assign attributes, 575
variables, assing input to, 458
variables, automatically export, 485
variables, built-in, 41
variables, character, 41
variables, common concepts, 10
variables, convert type, 42
variables, define, 484
variables, display, 429
variables, D_SPELL, 503
variables, environment, 398, 484, 490
variables, exported, 201, 398
variables, field, 42
variables, global, 201, 398
variables, H_SPELL, 503
variables, internal, mailx, 353
variables, keyword, 400
variables, local, 201, 398
variables, named, 400
variables, nawk, 41
variables, numbered, 398
variables, numeric, 41
variables, referencing, 398
variables, remove, 484
variables, reserved, 399
variables, see parameters also
variables, set, 484, 490
variables, set mail, 350
variables, special, 399
variables, S_SPELL, 503
variables, type, 398
variables, unset, 484, 490
variables, user defined, 42
variables, value of, 400, 484, 490, 575
verbose mode, ksh, 486
verbose variable, 214, 403
version 6 cpio format, 107
version control, diff, 137
version of ex, 186
version of operating system, 584
version of shell, 2, 9
version of UNIX, 2, 9
vertical movement, vi, 600
vi abbreviations, 608
vi buffers, 598
vi change operator, 592, 604
vi cut operator, 592, 604, 606
vi deindent operator, 592, 604, 605
vi delete operator, 592, 604, 605
vi display, 595
vi editor, 16, 589
vi filter operator, 592, 604, 605
vi indent operator, 592, 604, 605
vi limits, 599
vi macros, 607
vi mode, history file, 214
vi mode, in ex, 171
vi modes, 596
vi motion commands, 599
vi quick reference, 672
vi registers, 597
vi screen, 17
vi yank operator, 592, 604, 606
vi, see ex also
view file, 372, 392, 416, 589
view file, octal dump, 392
view multiple files, 372, 416, 589
view, see display
virtual memory, maximum size, 576
VISUAL variable, 356, 402
visually diplay new-lines, 188
visually diplay tabs, 188
VMS to UNIX cross reference, 663

W

wait command, 439, 614
wall clock execute time, 546, 549
wall command, 614
warn option, ex, 190
warning, escape w/o save, ex, 190
wBAUD option, ex, 190
wc command, 618
whatis command, 620
whence command, 622
which command, 626
which command being executed, 626
which version of shell, 9
which version of UNIX, 9
while loop, 437
while loop statement, 52
who am i command, 629
who command, 628
who is logged in, 588, 628
who string, chmod, 82
whoami command, 632
width, page, 425
width, printer page, 314
wild cards, see filename expansion
wild cards, see regular expressions
wildcards, disable filename, 485
wildcards, filename, 230
window option, ex, 190
window size, ex, 174, 190
word count, 618
word disgnators, csh history, 217
word movement, vi, 600
word search, egrep, 160
word search, fgrep, 223
word search, grep, 251
word units, vi, 592, 597
working directory, 11, 71, 456
wrap around buffer search, ex, 190
wrapmargin option, ex, 190
wrapscan option, ex, 190
write command, ed, 155
write command, ex, 180
write command, sed, 481
write message to user, 633
write permission, 83, 333
write permission to tty, 367, 628
write to all users, 614
write to file and standard output, 539
write to file descriptor, 266, 428
write to pipe, 428
write to user, 18
writeany option, ex, 190
writing programs in nawk, 37
writing shell scripts, 432

Y

yank command, ex, 176
yank operator, vi, 592, 604, 606
yanking text, ex, 176
yanking text, vi, 606

Z

Ctrl-Z, suspend character, 186, 523


Table of Contents