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A typical hard disk has one or more platters, or disks. Hard disks for PC systems have been available in a number of form factors over the years. Normally, the physical size of a drive is expressed as the size of the platters. Following are the most common platter sizes used in PC hard disks today:
Larger hard drives that have 8-inch, 14-inch, or even larger platters are available, but these drives typically have not been associated with PC systems. Currently, the 3 1/2-inch drives are the most popular for desktop and some portable systems, whereas the 2 1/2-inch and smaller drives are very popular in portable or notebook systems. These little drives are fairly amazing, with current capacities of up to 1GB or more, and capacities of 20GB are expected by the year 2000. Imagine carrying a notebook computer around with a built-in 20GB drive. It will happen sooner than you think! Due to their small size, these drives are extremely rugged; they can withstand rough treatment that would have destroyed most desktop drives a few years ago.
Most hard drives have two or more platters, although some of the smaller drives have only one. The number of platters that a drive can have is limited by the drive’s physical size vertically. So far, the maximum number of platters that I have seen in any 3 1/2-inch drive is 11.
Platters traditionally have been made from an aluminum alloy for strength and light weight. With manufacturers’ desire for higher and higher densities and smaller drives, many drives now use platters made of glass (or, more technically, a glass-ceramic composite). One such material is called MemCor, which is produced by the Dow Corning Corporation. MemCor is composed of glass with ceramic implants, which resists cracking better than pure glass.
Glass platters offer greater rigidity and, therefore, can be machined to one-half the thickness of conventional aluminum disks, or less. Glass platters also are much more thermally stable than aluminum platters, which means that they do not change dimensions (expand or contract) very much with any changes in temperature. Several hard disks made by companies such as Seagate, Toshiba, Areal Technology, Maxtor, and Hewlett-Packard currently use glass or glass-ceramic platters. For most manufacturers, glass disks will replace the standard aluminum substrate over the next few years, especially in high-performance 2 1/2- and 3 1/2-inch drives.
No matter what substrate is used, the platters are covered with a thin layer of a magnetically retentive substance called media in which magnetic information is stored. Two popular types of media are used on hard disk platters:
Oxide media is made of various compounds, containing iron oxide as the active ingredient. A magnetic layer is created by coating the aluminum platter with a syrup containing iron-oxide particles. This media is spread across the disk by spinning the platters at high speed. Centrifugal force causes the material to flow from the center of the platter to the outside, creating an even coating of media material on the platter. The surface then is cured and polished. Finally, a layer of material that protects and lubricates the surface is added and burnished smooth. The oxide media coating normally is about 30 millionths of an inch thick. If you could peer into a drive with oxide-media–coated platters, you would see that the platters are brownish or amber.
As drive density increases, the media needs to be thinner and more perfectly formed. The capabilities of oxide coatings have been exceeded by most higher-capacity drives. Because oxide media is very soft, disks that use this type of media are subject to head-crash damage if the drive is jolted during operation. Most older drives, especially those sold as low-end models, have oxide media on the drive platters. Oxide media, which has been used since 1955, remained popular because of its relatively low cost and ease of application. Today, however, very few drives use oxide media.
Thin-film media is thinner, harder, and more perfectly formed than oxide media. Thin film was developed as a high-performance media that enabled a new generation of drives to have lower head floating heights, which in turn made possible increases in drive density. Originally, thin-film media was used only in higher-capacity or higher-quality drive systems, but today, virtually all drives have thin-film media.
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