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A voice-coil actuator with servo control is not affected by temperature changes, as a stepper motor is. When the temperature is cold and the platters have shrunk (or when the temperature is hot and the platters have expanded), the voice-coil system compensates because it never positions the heads in predetermined track positions. Rather, the voice-coil system searches for the specific track, guided by the prewritten servo information and can position the head rack precisely above the desired track at that track's current position, regardless of the temperature. Because of the continuous feedback of servo information, the heads adjust to the current position of the track at all times. For example, as a drive warms up and the platters expand, the servo information allows the heads to "follow" the track. As a result, a voice-coil actuator often is called a track following system.

Two main types of voice-coil positioner mechanisms are available:

  Linear voice-coil actuators
  Rotary voice-coil actuators

The types differ only in the physical arrangement of the magnets and coils.

A linear actuator (see Figure 1-3) moves the heads in and out over the platters in a straight line, much like a tangential-tracking turntable. The coil moves in and out on a track surrounded by the stationary magnets. The primary advantage of the linear design is that it eliminates the head azimuth variations that occur with rotary positioning systems. (Azimuth refers to the angular measurement of the head position relative to the tangent of a given cylinder.) A linear actuator does not rotate the head as it moves from one cylinder to another, thus eliminating this problem.

FIG. 1-3  A linear voice-coil actuator.

Although the linear actuator seems to be a good design, it has one fatal flaw: The devices are much too heavy. As drive performance has increased, the desire for lightweight actuator mechanisms has become very important. The lighter the mechanism, the faster it can be accelerated and decelerated from one cylinder to another. Because they are much heavier than rotary actuators, linear actuators were popular only for a short time; they are virtually nonexistent in drives manufactured today.

Rotary actuators also use stationary magnets and a movable coil, but the coil is attached to the end of an actuator arm, much like that of a turntable's tone arm. As the coil is forced to move relative to the stationary magnet, it swings the head arms in and out over the surface of the disk. The primary advantage of this mechanism is its light weight, which means that the heads can be accelerated and decelerated very quickly, resulting in very fast average seek times. Because of the lever effect on the head arm, the heads move faster than the actuator, which also helps to improve access times.

The disadvantage with a rotary system is that as the heads move from the outer to inner cylinders, they are rotated slightly with respect to the tangent of the cylinders. This rotation results in an azimuth error and is one reason why the area of the platter in which the cylinders are located is somewhat limited. By limiting the total motion of the actuator, the azimuth error can be contained to within reasonable specifications. Virtually all voice-coil drives today use rotary actuator systems.

Servo Mechanisms

Three servo mechanism designs have been used to control voice-coil positioners over the years:

  Wedge servo
  Embedded servo
  Dedicated servo

These designs are slightly different, but they accomplish the same basic task: They enable the head positioner to adjust continuously so that it is precisely placed above a given cylinder in the drive. The main difference among these servo designs is where the gray code information is actually written on the drive.

All servo mechanisms rely on special information that is only written to the disk when the disk is manufactured. This information usually is in the form of a special code called a gray code. A gray code is a special binary notational system in which any two adjacent numbers are represented by a code that differs in only one bit place or column position. This system makes it easy for the head to read the information and quickly determine its precise position. This guidance code can be written only when the drive is manufactured; the code is used over the life of the drive for accurate positional information.

The servo gray code is written at the time of manufacture by a special machine called a servowriter: Basically, a jig that mechanically moves the heads to a given reference position and then writes the servo information for that position. Many servowriters are themselves guided by a laser-beam reference that calculates its own position by calculating distances in wavelengths of light. Because the servowriter must be capable of moving the heads mechanically, this process is done with the lid of the drive off or through special access ports on the HDA. After the servowriting is complete, these ports usually are covered with sealing tape. You often see these tape-covered holes on the HDA, usually accompanied by warnings that you will void the warranty if you remove the tape. Because servowriting exposes the interior of the drive, it must be done in a clean-room environment.

A servowriter is an expensive piece of machinery, costing up to $50,000 or more and often must be custom-made for a particular make or model of drive. Some drive-repair companies have servowriting capability, which means that they can rewrite the servo information on a drive if it becomes damaged. Lacking a servowriter, a drive with servo-code damage must be sent back to the drive manufacturer for the servo information to be rewritten.

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